These pages outline solutions and share resources for funding and financing infrastructure programs and projects. We’ve identified 26 levers governments can apply to improve bankability and attract more private capital:
- Revenue (funding)-type levers: These 5 levers generate cash flows to fund programs and projects
- Risk management-type levers: These 7 levers refer to contract clauses and financial instruments that balance the risk-reward profile to make a program or project more attractive to investors
- Financing-type levers: These 14 levers are financial instruments for capital in the form of equity, debt, or a combination.
Also included on these pages are resources for funding and financing green and circular infrastructure, financing large national infrastructure programs, and more. We invite you to explore the resources and contact us with any questions.
How have we defined funding and financing? Expand to learn more
As defined by the International Monetary Fund, funding of a project refers to how investment and operational costs are repaid over time; in the case of public infrastructure, this means by users, taxpayers or a combination of both. Financing refers to money raised up front – through equity or debt instruments – for the design, construction and early operating costs of an asset. New funding and financing models have emerged in recent years, with a whole range of solutions to increase and diversify revenues and financing options.
Explore our library of 100+ case studies
In our case study library, you can browse, filter, and search 100+ global, real project case studies that used revenue, risk management, and financing levers to make projects bankable.
Funding and financing green and circular economy solutions
In late 2021, we prepared a compendium for the G20 that examined how the decarbonisation agenda is being funded and financed worldwide, and which approaches hold the most promise for progress. Our work also presents global case studies of funding and financing of green and circular infrastructure, which reveal important lessons about how to make new infrastructure more circular and the role of infrastructure in supporting a lower-carbon and more circular economy.
Emerging solutions for financing national infrastructure programs
We’ve also analysed how governments finance large infrastructure programs – especially during ‘exceptional times’ like natural disasters, financial crises, and pandemics – to identify good practices. The Financing National Infrastructure compendium outlines emerging approaches by national and sub-national governments to fund and minimise the cost of financing infrastructure, accelerate time to market, and leverage private capital in a way that is scalable and replicable.
Funding and financing framework
The framework will help you better understand the factors that support and drive private sector investment. This work was created by the GI Hub for the wider industry as well as the G20 Infrastructure Working Group. The accompanying G20 Infrastructure Working Group Reference Note provides additional insights and background analysis