This paper develops a cost based model in order to analyse and understand the costs behind the implementation of identification systems to governments. As governments across the globe are implementing new, digital foundational identification systems or modernizing existing ID programs, there is an urgent need to develop accurate estimations of the associated costs. There are a handful of existing analyses that have attempted to estimate the overall cost of foundational ID systems: for instance, Gelb and Diofasi Metz (2018) estimate that it is likely to cost a low income country roughly 0.6 percent of GDP to build a foundational ID system, or about $4–11 investment per registrant for enrolment and credential issuance. The same study cites figures for a few countries suggesting recurrent costs of around 0.06–0.1 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). As the authors point out however, few data points exist and these figures may not apply to different types of systems or to all countries.
Women Wavemakers : Practical Strategies for Recruiting and Retaining Women in Coding Bootcamps
This book addresses two concerns. First that advanced technologies developed in high-income countries would inexorably lead to job losses of lower-skilled, less well-off workers and exacerbate inequality. Second Policies intended to protect jobs from technology advancement would themselves stultify progress and depress productivity, these are addressed using the output effect subsitution effect framework.
Incentives for Improving Birth Registration Coverage : A Review of the Literature
This report provides a comprehensive overview of digital transformation in Russia, including chapters on the general digital economy in Russia, the global best practice for enhancing digital platforms in Russa and boosting digital innovation.