Bus services dominate the public transport systems in emerging economies, due to their cost effectiveness and adaptability. However, cities are facing intensified calls to reform their bus services to provide high-quality, safe public transport services for their users and address environmental challenges. To deliver sustainable solutions, cities are increasingly looking to renew fleets and infrastructure, integrate their bus networks and introduce priority bus corridors. Bus sector reform is recognised as a fundamental step in achieving these goals. This paper focuses particularly on how to improve services by laying out the rationale and steps for cities to achieve bus sector reforms, with case studies, examples and illustrations. While it principally applies to urban bus networks, many elements are relevant to regional and sub-regional public transport networks.