COUNTRY | Turkey
REGION | Europe
SECTOR | transport
QII Principles | Principle 1 Sustainable Growth & Development, Principle 2 Economic Efficiency, Principle 3 Environmental Considerations, Principle 4 Building Resilience, Principle 5 Social Considerations, Principle 6 Infrastructure Governance
QII Sub-Principles | 1: SDGs, 1: Wider economic benefits, 2: Life-cycle costing, 2: Operation and maintenance, 2: Technological innovation, 2: Risk management, 3: Environmental Impact Assessment, 3: Environmental Impact Mitigation, 3: Disclosure of environmental aspects, 3: Ecosystems, 3: Biodiversity, 3: Weather, 3: Emissions, 4: Resilience, 4: Disaster risk management, 4: Disaster risk insurance, 5: Social Impact Assessment, 5: Job creation, 5: Gender, 5: Occupational health and safety, 5: Disability, 5: Children, 5: Displaced communities, 6: Growth & development strategies, 6: Financial & debt sustainability, 6: Access to information and data, 6: Legal and Regulatory Frameworks, 6: Transparency of infrastructure investment
Cost: 1,245 billion USD
Size: The Project alignment length is approximately 14.6 km and consists of a twin deck 2x2=4-lane road tunnel beneath the Bosphorus Strait connecting the European and Asian shores of Istanbul as well as widening of approximately 9 km of existing roads leading to the tunnel.
Parties involved (public and private)
- Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure
- General Directorate of Infrastructure Investments
- Yap? Merkezi Construction Inc.
- SK E&C Company Ltd.
- Special Purpose Company:
- Eurasia Tunnel Operation Const. & Invest. Inc.
- Multilateral Institutions:
- European Investment Bank
- European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
- Export Insurance Providers:
- Korean Exim Bank
- Korean Export Insurance Agency (K-Sure)
- Commercial Banks:
- Standard Chartered Bank
- Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation
- Mizuho Bank
- Garanti Bankas?
- Türkiye ?? Bankas?
- Yap? Kredi Bankas?
- Deutsche Bank
- Multilateral Institutions:
Relevant contractual details (type, length etc.): Built Operate Transfer, with concessionaire period of 30 years
Context: 2x2 Two storey tunnel
Aim(s) of the project: Reducing journey time between two continents which is heavily congested.
Key dates including procurement, construction, operations 2008 June Tender submission 2008 December Tender decision 2011 February Contract signing 2013 March Financial Close 2016 December Tunnel open 2042 January Handover to government
Relevance to QII
The Eurasia Tunnel Project exemplifies achievement, marking a new era in tunnelling for the world with its intensive innovation, advanced technologies and robust engineering expertise The know how has been used for the other projects all around the world now. And tunnel operation is also planned tailor-made, which is open to development. All necessary developments have been planned in advance and provide to the customer sustainable safe and comfortable driving experience. And the experiences have been shared with the related government organizations periodically.
2.Wider economic benefits
It contributed 4,6 billion TL to the Economy in the first years of operation by 84 million hours time saving, 1111million less veh-km means, 129.000 tons less fuel consumption and 50.000 tons less CO2 emission.
2: Life-cycle costing
Life Cycle Cost estimation has been prepared at the preparation stage and incorporated in the Financial Model before Financial Closure.
2: Operation and maintenance
PIARC operations framework “Good Practice for the Operation and Maintenance of Road Tunnels” and the European Directive 2004/54/EC “The European Road Tunnel Safety Regulations.” are being followed.
Operation Standards are ISO 9001, ISO 14001, ISO 45001 and ISO 27001 Certified.
Predictive Maintenance applied which is mathematical modelling technique to detect and diagnose faults in electric motors and connected equipment which improves control over equipment performance and reduce breakdowns. Implemented for critical ventilation and drainage equipment.
Preventive Maintenance is also being applied for equipment maintenance strategy based on replacing, overhauling or remanufacturing an item at a fixed interval, regardless of its condition at the time.
Eurasia Tunnel was found worthy of the “Maintenance and Renewal Method” award by the New Civil Engineers Magazine, the most respectable engineering magazine of the United Kingdom, for the project aimed at enhancing the energy productivity and sustainability.
2: Technological innovation
Successful application of Intervention via Fire Fighting (Suppression) Equipment implemented Motorcycles minimises the intervention time.
Monitoring and control of integrated systems including Ventilation, Lighting (First Full LED Technology use in Turkey) , Security, Power Supply (Backed-Up from both Europe and Asia Side and supported with UPS and Generators), Radio Rebroadcasting, Public Address, Fire Detection and Suppression (NFPA502 Compatible), CCTV and Automatic Incident Detection Systems.
In order to prevent the tunnel closures caused by traffic congestion inside the tunnel due to the average speed differences between downhill and uphill direction, pacemaker lighting (moving lighting application with the traffic speed) applied in compliance with PIARC recommendation.
2: Risk management
Emergency Response Plan is prepared in coordination with Fire Brigade, Ambulances, Police, Municipality and other public Authorities in relation to traffic and emergency response management. Protocols have been executed with public bodies to set out the responsibility sharing in detail. Joint safety drills with relevant Emergency Services are being implemented twice in a year.
All possible scenarios; such as fire, accident etc.; have been defined and integrated in Scada and Automation System to deal with Ventilation, Lighting, Security, Energy, Radio and Announce, Fire Detection and Fire Suppression sub-systems.
3: Environmental Impact Assessment
In 2007, a project information document was prepared by the Employer in accordance with the requirements of the 2003 Turkish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Regulation and submitted to the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. On the basis of this submission, the Ministry concluded that the proposed project was not within the scope of the 2003 EIA Regulation and that an EIA study was not therefore required.
However, based both on social responsibility and Lenders’ requirements, an ESIA (Environmental and Social Impact Assessment) study was initiated by ATAS even though there was no legal obligation for such a study under national legislation.
Under the overarching principles of the Equator Principles, the study was carried out in accordance with the relevant standards and guidelines of EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development), EIB (European Investment Bank), IFC (International Finance Corporation) and OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development).
The assessment followed a systematic process of predicting and evaluating the impacts the Project is expected to have on the physical, natural, cultural, social and socio-economic environment and identifying measures that the developer is able take to avoid, reduce, remedy, offset or compensate for adverse impacts and to provide benefits.
Major considerations identified and addressed within the framework of ESIA included: displacement of land use, properties and people, air quality and climatic conditions, noise and vibration, archaeology and cultural heritage, landscape design and visual effects, socio-economic effects, community health and safety, working conditions, resources and wastes, geology, soil and land contamination, marine environment, biological diversity and conservation of nature.
3: Environmental impact mitigation
Possible environmental impacts of the Project during construction and operation period were determined at design stage. Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) is prepared in November 2012 which describes mitigation measures to minimise possible effects.
Soils and Contaminated Materials Method Statement is produced which includes health and safety procedures, and emergency procedures for containing and managing accidental spillages.
Waste Management Plan is developed which describes all disposal methodology for all wastes from sites eg. hazardous, non- hazardous, recyclable etc. Gold LEED certificate is received with the improvements made in the Operation and Maintenance Building.
Noise and Vibration Monitoring Program was prepared to ensure sensitive facilities are kept advised and levels were not exceeding the standards during construction period. Noise measurements were conducted at sensitive points along the project route during the first 2 years of the operation period.
The bentonite slurry used in the progress of the Tunnel Boring Machine during the excavation was recycled and reused.
Dust generating areas were controlled by water spraying, the drop height of dusty materials were kept as low as possible, on-site speed limit was restricted and enforced for trucks travelling on unpaved surfaces (10km/h), wheel washing facilities were available and used to avoid spreading dirt onto neighbouring roads etc. mitigation measures were taken minimise dust and effect on air quality.
All road and tunnel drainage are collected at sumps located at the lowest points along the route and discharged to the municipal storm water sewer system in accordance with required permits. Road drainage which is contaminated by spills is separately collected and subjected to appropriate disposal to licensed firms.
3: Disclosure of environmental aspects
Significant changes and updates to the Project plans are shared with the local community, as are information regarding key progress milestones (e.g., start of overall construction, start and finalization of tunnel works, completion of major road sections widening) and the Project’s work program and construction methods were managed in accordance with comments and complaints from the public.
Air quality data from Project’s air quality monitoring stations are shared via National Air Quality Monitoring Network. Monthly and annual reports are prepared and shared if requested.
3: Ecosystems & Biodiversity
Detailed tree survey is done to determine the species, age, height, and condition of all trees and replaced at least one-to-one basis if to be felled is a must. Clearance of vegetation or feeling of trees without prior checks for presence of nesting birds. Periodical inspections of vegetation/tree areas were made by qualified specialist and maintenance and replacement were done.
A bio-filtration research study conducted by independent consultant. 13 different species of tree and 10 different species of shrubs which has high removal capacity were selected and applied next to the European side ventilation stack with a total area of 7,300 m2.
Weather data is received from Directorate of Meteorology to take needed actions for operation in case of heavy rain, hail etc. and ensure the instantaneous pollutant data pickups’ reason and understand impact of the effect on neighbourhood’s air quality.
To understand the potential impact of project on ambient air quality, regional air quality needed to be determined before the operation commencement date. For this purpose, two air monitoring stations were established in the vicinity of the tunnel portal both for European and Asian side in November 2015. Most concern generated pollutants by motor vehicles are measured at the stations. Results are evaluated due to national and EU standards, and WHO guidelines and reported.
Even though Turkish Air Quality Regulations do not define in-tunnel pollutant standards, six group of sensors are implemented on each deck of the tunnel in December 2016. Data is observed consistently, results are evaluated due to World Road Association (PIARC) guidelines and reported.
Service life of segmental lining is expected to be longer than requirement (100 years) according to the concrete mixed design by International Institutions.
All fire protection and fire life safety requirements along the tunnels comply with the latest version of NFPA 502 and PIARC.
4: Disaster risk management
Full integration is ensured with Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) who is also a party to the relevant protocols and joins to the drills.
Disaster Recovery Plan and Immediate Response Procedures to Disasters are prepared including major flood, fire, earthquake and damage scenarios.
Crisis Management Plan document is prepared. Business Continuity Plan is under preparation according to international standards.
Disaster management plans are prepared and drills are made with the emergency services compatible with the national disaster management plans.
4: Disaster risk insurance
All risks insurance policy, including earthquakes, is in place for the Facility and systems described in the Contract.
5: Social Impact Assessment
Stakeholder Engagement Plan (SEP) is prepared in May 2012 and updated during operation period which aims to ensure that adequate and timely information is provided to people directly affected by the Project, as well as other stakeholders, so that they have an opportunity to voice their opinions and concerns and continues throughout operation stage.
The pedestrian zone between the city and the sea on the European side is increased from 55 m to 277 m with pedestrian overpasses. 2.7 km long bicycle path and pedestrian path is applied. Game and exercise areas are renewed.
Information about the tunnel traffic status, road closures etc. is provided through project information channels.
Significant changes and updates on the Project are continuously shared with the local community and the public.
A Project hotline, an e-mail address, a grievance form on Project website and Operation and Maintenance Building, local complaint board on web are communication channels for grievances.
Stakeholders also can have an opportunity to person-to-person meeting with Project E&S Specialist.
5: Job creation
Approximately 12,000 people were employed during construction period and 200 people from different disciplines work for operation.
Employment Policy Document (EPD) is prepared in October 2011 which includes requirements of Labour, Working Conditions and Occupational Health and Safety. Compliance with all policies within this document is required all Project partners during both construction and operation period.
In this document it is ensured that employment decision will not be make on the basis of personal characteristics that are unrelated to inherent job requirements, such as language, race, gender, political opinion, religion, disability, age etc. in accordance of national and EU legislation on anti-discrimination and equal opportunities.
The Project pays attention to a balanced number of female and male employees and tends to make positive discrimination in order to increase the number of female employees.
5: Occupational health and safety
It is confirmed to provide all employees with a safe and healthy work environment, taking into account inherent risks and hazards.
All relevant occupational Health and Safety laws of the Republic of Turkey and also with relevant EU requirement and good international practices are complied.
Renewed pedestrian overpass structures are design to make overpass available for disabled people.
Disabled people are employed in the Project according to their disability status.
EPD ensures that child labour is not used on the Project.
The employment of children who are not fifteen years old is strictly prohibited and the employment of children between fifteen and seventeen years old is restricted to specific non-hazardous and non-arduous tasks subject to individual risk assessment.
5: Displaced communities
Construction Management Plan (CMP) which ensures reinstatement/handover at completion of construction, is prepared and maintained.
Project Affected People (PAP) are determined and Individual Plans (IP) were prepared for each. ATAS supported all PAP due to identified mitigation measures in IP. Observation and communication with some PAP is on-going process.
6: Growth & development strategies
Minimum Traffic Guarantee Achievement is the first target of Appointed Company and Administration. In order to reach to it as soon as possible, Appointed Company and Administration has still been working to develop new projects especially regarding improvement of approach roads to the tunnel.
6: Financial & debt sustainability
Being implemented under a Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) model, Istanbul Strait Road Tunnel Project has a robust business model, multi-layered financial and legal arrangements, diverse stakeholders. It first BOT project under the Debt Assumption of the Ministry of Treasury and FinanceEleven different international financial institutions provided USD 960 million in financing with 18-year maturity, being the longest maturity ever extended to a build-operate-transfer (BOT) project in Turkey. The remaining cost of the project, USD 285 million has been covered by the shareholders who are leading construction companies in their regions. Prior to the realization of the project, an extensive due diligence process was undertaken, a diverse security package was put in place, and certain swap arrangements were made. Following an efficient construction period, the project was completed in 2016 and the company started its operations 8 months prior to the envisaged completion date and without any fatal accident.
6: Access to information and data
Access to information and data is always provided in accordance with the contract.
6: Legal Framework
Project is realized under the Law no 3996 on Realization of Certain Public Investments under the Build Operate Transfer Model. Debt Assumption is granted by the Ministry of Treasury and Finance according to Law No 4749 on Regulating Public Finance and Debt Management
6: Institutional Framework
All the works has been done in institutional framework for sustainable development. Creating a highly reputable, well structured, trusted corporate brand identity for Eurasia Tunnel which is positioned as an investment made for the people.
Tender process was done transparently. All announcement in the international official gazette for tender has been done.
- Shorter Travel Time
- 100 minutes to 15 minutes
- Fuel Consumption
- Maintenance Expenses
- Positive effect of shorter travel time
- High Safety
- Design considers natural hazards
- 24 hours closed circuit camera system monitoring
- Speed control
- High Comfort Level
- Special internal architectural design
- uninterrupted travel under negative weather conditions (rain, fog and ice)
- ESIA Report
- Respect to cultural heritage (UNESCO Surveillance)
- Height limit in structures (6.0 m)
- Air quality
- Less traffic load in the historical peninsula
- Stakeholder Engagement
Eurasia Tunnel reduced journey time more than 30 minutes at the south of ?stanbul compared to the other alternative Bosporus crossings. In addition to that, it will reduce fuel costs, as well as the amount of harmful gas released into the air and the maintenance costs of vehicles.
The Eurasia Tunnel is the first two-deck highway tunnel under the seabed in the world, so it creates new era in tunnelling in the world.
The Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM), was used in the tunnel excavation; with a 33.3 kW/m2 cutting head power it ranks 1st in the world, with a 12 bar design pressure it is the 2nd in the world and its 147.3 m2 cutting head area places it at 6th in the world.
Successful implementation of new regulations for the first time such as; Step-in Mechanism, Debt Assumption, Risk Events, Direct Agreements, Minimum Revenue Guarantee
Longest tenor and preferential terms for loans
Increased FDI and support from multilaterals after 2008 Financial Crisis
Technically challenging project connecting two continents, involving many reputable international stakeholders
Reached Financial Closing with full support of the Government
Reduced construction time (8 months) with early completion which became enabling factor for this BOT Project.
Expected and realised benefits: It contributed 4,6 billion TL to the Economy in the first three years of operation by 84-million-hour time saving, 1111million less veh-km means, 129.000 tons less fuel consumption and 50.000 tons less CO2 emission.
- Daily traffic is measured and daily reported
- Intervention time, clearance time, availability of tunnel, economical benefits has been measured and reported periodically.
Name of Institution
- Ministry of Treasury and Finance
- Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure
- General Directorate of Infrastructure Investments