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The toll road section of Jakarta-Bogor-Ciawi in Indonesia is approximately 50 km long and was opened in 1978. It is owned and managed by PT Jasa Marga, a state-owned enterprise responsible for managing many of Indonesia’s toll roads. PT Jasa Marga experienced difficulty accessing private financing for new toll road projects due to the long-term nature of returns, the high delivery risk, the high demand and usage risk, and a historic preference among institutional investors in Indonesia for short-term investments.
Ahmedabad Urban Development (AUDA) proposed an innovative approach to help cut down the park maintenance costs using a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model. AUDA collaborated with Anand Milk Federation Union Limited (AMUL), one of India’s largest dairy cooperatives, to maintain the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) public gardens in return for being given the rights to establish and operate a retail store in these public gardens.